I announce over and over that the chronicle ordering of the post are irrelevant for beginners' favor. There are many blanks I skipped. I would fill the holes later. Variational method During my physics coursework and researches, I used this method countlessly. I even had a book of the name. It is quite simple, but also as big topic as being a book. Simply put, it is a technique to find equations and solutions (sometimes approximate solutions) by extremizing functionals which is mainly just integrals of fields, and treat the functions in the integral, as parameters.